Connect with us

Parenting tips

Familial Factors Affecting Childhood Development and Growth.




The 4 Familial Factors Affecting Childhood Development and Growth.

There are many Familial factors affecting childhood development and growth. This familial factors can alter the childhood environment, also. No two children can grow exactly in the same environment, although identical twins are nearly approximate in this.

Common Factors that can affect child growth and development  includes:


  1. Family size:

The size of the family has a decided impact on the child. In a small family, more emphasis is placed on the individual development of the children.

Parenting is intensive rather than extensive, and there is constant pressure to measure up to family expectations. Children’s development and achievement are measured against that of other children in the neighborhood and social class.

Adolescents in small families identify more strongly with their parents and rely more on parents for advice. They have well-developed, autonomous inner controls as contrasted with adolescents from larger families who rely more on adult authority.

Children in a large family are able to adjust to a variety of changes and crises. There is more emphasis on the group and less on the individual. Cooperation is essential, often because of economic necessity.

The large number of persons sharing a limited amount of space requires a greater degree of organization, administration, and authoritarian control. The control is wielded by a dominant family member; a parent or an older child. The number of children reduces the intimate, one-to-one contact between the parent and any individual child. Consequently, children turn to each other for what they cannot get from their parents. The reduced parent-child contact encourages individual children to adopt specialized roles in an attempt at recognition in the family.

Discipline is often administered by older siblings in large families. Siblings are usually better attuned to the constitutes misbehavior, and sibling disapproval or ostracism is frequently a more meaningful disciplinary measure than parental spankings. In situations such as death or illness of a parent, an older sibling assumes responsibility for the family at a considerable personal sacrifice. Large families seem to generate a sense of security in the children fostered by sibling support and cooperation. However, adolescents from a large family are more peer-oriented than family-oriented.

Firstborn children are more achievement-oriented than children born later and exhibit strong drive and ambition. They usually receive more physical punishment than younger children and are allowed to show more aggression toward their younger siblings.

They have stronger consciences and are usually more self-disciplined, inner-directed, and prone to feelings of guilt, which may account for higher intellectual achievement.

Firstborn children are better represented in college populations than the younger siblings. Although they are more likely to have tasks imposed on them, the oldest child seems to experience fewer frustrations in the family setting than does a younger sibling. They are better planners and tend to identify with parents and to measure themselves by adult standards.

Younger children reflect a decrease in the amount of parental attention and anxieties. On the whole, mothers are warmer toward the youngest child than the oldest and middle child, and the youngest child receives little physical punishment.

The youngest child is less dependent than a firstborn and more apt to be left to manage things for himself. Younger children are usually more backward than the firstborn in language development and articulation. They appear to be less tense, more affectionate, and more good-natured than the firstborn, and they tend to identify more with the peer group than with parents. Second-born children seem to have more numerous interests.

The older and middle children are usually assigned more tasks in the family than the younger ones, and the middle children more so, than the older ones. The middle children appear to occupy the most difficult position. There are more demands on them for help with household tasks, they are praised less often for good behavior, and they receive less of the mother’s time for pleasurable activities.

One of the reasons for these differences is that the first child is most likely to be the most wanted child. The firstborn child, born to relatively inexperienced parents, the recipient of all the parental uncertainties, unskilled experimentation, and a great deal of adult attention and pressure. Parents expect more from him than from later children, tend to be tenser, and worry more about him.

Parents have had the experience of one child, are more relaxed when the second arrives, and they tend to be less strict and Just preoccupied with the parental role. The close intense attention that the eldest receives contributes to his adult orientation.

The age difference between siblings affects the childhood environment but to a lesser extent than does the sex of the siblings. The arrival of a sibling has the greatest impact on the older child, and a 2- to 4-year difference in an age appears to be most threatening When the older child is very young. His self-image is too immature to be threatened. At an older, he is better able to understand the situation and, therefore, less likely to see the newcomer as a threat, although he does feel the loss of his only-child status.

In general, the narrower the spacing between siblings, the lesser is the children influence one another especially in emotional characteristics, the wider the spacing, the greater the influence of the parents. Also, younger children tend to identify with older siblings. Consequently, they assume some of the personality characteristics of the older child.

Girls with brothers have more masculine characteristics than girls raised with sisters. They are on the whole, more aggressive, ambitious, and perform better on tests of intellectual ability, probably related to the more stimulating environment created by competitive, aggressive boys.

Boys with older sisters, especially if the age difference is slight are generally less aggressive and daring than boys raised with older boys, probably a reflection of the identification process and the more power exerted by the older siblings.

  1. Working mothers: A great deal has been written and conclusions have been made regarding the effects of mothers working outside the home. The number of women in the labor force has increased steadily during the past 2 decades and shows every indication of continuing. Mothers work for several reasons; Most work for purely economic reasons, either because they are the sole support of the family to supplement a husband’s inadequate income, or to provide the family with a higher standard of living. Others work as a response to the boredom of housework or simply to meet their own ego needs. No matter what the mother’s motivation, the consensus is that deleterious effects on the children are related to the quality of the mother-child interaction rather than the quantity of time spent with the children.

The mother’s relationship to the rest of the family depends to a large extent on her own feelings and reactions to working and to her job. Although most mothers feel some guilt about leaving their children in the care of others, those who feel secure and happy in their work usually reflect this attitude in the home and in relationships with other members of the family.

Sometimes, the mother feels guilty about leaving the children so that she can pursue a career or a job, particularly if she enjoys the outside activity. She may compensate for the guilt feelings with overindulgence toward the children, the children may feel more insecure and take advantage of her vulnerability with demanding behavior.

On the whole, children of working mothers are self-reliant, do better in school, and show relatively few ill effects of the separation. Many factors are related to the effect that a mother’s absence has on the children: the age of the child (very young children feel the impact of the mother’s absence more than older children), the attitude of the father toward the wife’s employment, and the regularity with which she is away from the family.

Delinquency rates appear to be highest in families where the mother works sporadically. However, these are predominantly children from the lower classes, where other factors are also in operation. The mother’s emotional stability is a more important factor in these situations.

  1. Absent father: Fathers have been referred to as “absent fathers” because they are away from the home for the greater part of the day. Even though the trend is toward equilateral responsibility for home and family, chances are that when he is at home he is fatigued and only too glad to abdicate all responsibility for the children to the mother (unless she too, is working outside the home). Our concern here, however, is with the family without a father because of death, divorce, desertion, illegitimacy, or involuntary separation such as military service, job demands, jail, and so on

The most serious consequences of parent absence are related to the separation of the child from the mother in infancy and early childhood. However, there are some effects on child development when a parent (usually the father) is absent during childhood.

The primary effect of the absence of either parent from the home is in the difficulty in adjustment and development of sexual identity. This is more marked when the parental absence occurs early in the child’s life and when it is the same-sex parent.

Girls from homes where fathers are absent are more dependent on their mothers and show some anxiety about relationships with males during adolescence. Boys from homes without fathers tend to be less aggressive, are more apt to have emotional and social problems, and demonstrate cognitive patterning more similar to that of girls.

Overprotectiveness, extreme indulgence, and often prolonged physical contact with the mother over a period of years may contribute to serious sex identity problems in male children. Children from homes in which one or both parents are frequently absent are highly susceptible to peer group influence.

This appears to be related to a lack of attention and concern at home rather than to a positive attraction of the peer group. Also, the peer group serves a role identification function for young males from homes where the father is absent or ineffectual

  1. Divorce: Authorities agree that marital factors within the home contribute to children’s development. Children from a happy, relaxed atmosphere in the home are less likely to have a negative outlook than are those from stressed homes. The causes of marital strife are varied, but the effect of the parents’ inability to adapt to influences, the adjustment and personality growth of young children. It is difficult to determine to what extent the child’s maladjustment is related to the family atmosphere leading to a divorce or to the divorce itself.

It is known that divorce is not good for children, however. children who are under the continual stress of intact but unhappy homes feel more secure and happy after the marital relationship is dissolved.

Children who felt that their homes were happy before the divorce have a more difficult adjustment. Factors present in the divorce situation itself exert harmful influences on children’s psychological adjustment.

The child who becomes involved in divorce has feelings of terror and abandonment. As the parents become involved with their own feelings and concerns, they are less available and have less to give the children. The children see themselves apart from the family, feel alone and isolate, and long for consistency and order in their lives.

Since a function of parenthood is to provide for the emotional welfare of the child disruption of the family structure. This often engenders strong feelings of guilt in the parents. Some may feel resentment toward the child who makes the situation more difficult, and they may attempt to compensate for overprotective behavior and excessive concern for the child’s welfare.

The child, also, has guilt feelings as though he has failed or is being punished for past misbehavior. The interpersonal tension created by parental insecurity and anxiety is communicated to the child who does not have the ego resources to cope with these feelings of tension and the vague threat of a change in his world.

Although, there are counseling services available to parents, very little such help is available for children. Children need to be taught that relationships change and how to deal with the new form that the relationship takes. During a divorce, parental capacity is diminished. The parents are much too preoccupied with their own needs and life changes to be supportive of their children.

Moreover, they need to know what to do, and there are not acceptable models on which they can rely. Many parents do not tell their children about the divorce either because they do not know what to tell the children or because they believe that the children will not understand.

The impact of divorce on children depends on the age of the child and the quality of parental care during the years following the divorce. Although a child at any age is fondly affected by divorce, the greatest amount of stress is suffered by preschool children, adolescents,s and school-age children who are better able to cope with the separation.

Egocentric preschoolers, who see and understand things only in relation to themselves, assume themselves to be the cause of parental distress and interpret the separation as punishment. They feel sadness and a strong feeling of responsibility for the loss of the absent parent.

Moreover, they consciously fear that they may be abandoned by the remaining parent. Consequently, it is essential to establish some kind of stability for these children; otherwise they will convert their energies to restabilization rather than to growth and development.

They need frequent, repeated, and concrete explanations of what is going to happen to them how they will be cared for, and assurance that something new will take the place of the old and that they will not be deserted. In order, that they will not imagine things explanations, such as where they will live, who will prepare their meals when the parent is at work, and when they will see the absent parent again, should be specific.

They need a focus on reality.

School-age children and adolescents are able to deal with parental separation better than younger children. They feel intense pain and loneliness, their ability to learn is affected since they are unable to focus on learning, and somatic complaints, especially in school-age children, and emotional disturbances in adolescents are observed. Often, they must move to an unfamiliar environment and a new neighborhood and form new relationships, in addition to coping with the alteration in their family structure. They almost invariably wish for the parents to reunite.

To predict the impact of divorce on any specific child, it is important to anticipate how much love and understanding will continue after the parent separation and how much genuine concom and affection exist for the child.

Other complications include efforts on the part of one parent to subvert the child’s loyalties to the other, abandonment to other caregivers, and adjustment to a step-parent.

In 90 of divorce cases, the mother receives custody of the child: this has an effect on the male child’s identification with a father figure. In addition to all, the other ramifications of the family without a father and the single-parent family; Many divorced mothers with small children move in with parents, other relatives, or friends in some kind of dependent or sharing arrangement.

In general, better-educated parents and those in the upper strata of society are less apt to divorce, separate or desert each other, the incidence is highest in the lower social classes.

There are numerous other factors that significantly influence the childhood environment such as a handicapped or chronically ill child in the family, death of a sibling or parent, the advent of a stepparent and sometimes stepsiblings, and the experience of a foster child, who often must adjust to several families.

In conclusion, these listed are the Familial Factors Affecting Childhood Development and Growth.

Thank you.


Click to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Parenting tips

How to Deal with a Drop in Your Teen’s Grades



picture of teens reading

Dealing with a drop in your Teen’s grade is usually one of the challenges faced by parents. When there is a poor grade, complaining and worrying are bound to occur at a certain point as a parent. Poor performance in school is usually caused by several factors; some may be caused by the parents. A drop in grade is usually a predicament faced by many teens during high school.

Notwithstanding, it is very paramount to decipher these three things,
• The cause of the Low grades
• Why the low grades and
• How to tal
Here I’ll be sharing the steps to take when your college kid’s grades are slipping.


The first step to take is trying to visualize what might prompt the kid’s failure. Relocating to another apartment may make you change your teen’s school. A change in school might result in  drop in grades. This is usually because the new school may have more brilliant students than the old school. Other causes of a drop in grade might be inadequate sleep, busy social life, too many house chores, spending so much time in school activities, etc. All of these could result in laziness, a lack of motivation, or distraction.

If the drop in grade is so sudden then quick action must be taken. It’s very important to analyze your child’s grades from time to time to see if there is a spontaneous or a slow drop in grade.


Several years ago, I was working as Home Tutor. While I was doing my work, I encountered John who used to be a great mathematician in Primary school. When he entered high school, I noticed he started failing mathematics woefully. The painful part is that the parents of the boy never had the time to have  one-on-one communication with him.
As a counselor, I spoke with him and he opened to me that all he wishes for, is to change school and I asked why? After much persuasion, I discovered that the hatred he had for his teacher in mathematic never allowed him to put his best in school.

Getting to know what’s actually wrong with the kid might be quite difficult because the child may seem perfect in everything that he does. He might be a person who doesn’t like asking questions in class.
It could take you a while to get the right answers. The best is to find a quiet time with the child and speak with him.

ALSO, READ The Dangers of Overscheduling Your Child


speak to the school

speak to the school when you notice a drop in your child’s grade.

A fluctuation in the kid’s grade should not make you be a regular visitor to the school authority. A fluctuation may occur because there were so many people in competition at that particular time. The child’s grade may drop from Grade A to B. if the grades are sustained over a long time, then you’ll need to visit the teacher rather gun blazing or apportioning blames…
One good thing about teachers is that they are able to provide valuable insight of  everything that is happening at school as regards the child. Talking to the teacher may provide a valuable solution.


get a home tutor

Getting a home tutor will help tackle poor grade in your child

Getting a home tutor is very important in a child’s academics. Many parents usually deploy this approach whether their child is performing very well or not, they see it as a necessity.
Get one if you feel you’re too busy, to give your kids academic attention, it would help a long way.

5.When there is an underlying issue

Other underlying issues may be bullying from other kids, emotional upset, depression, or anxiety. all of these are usually very difficult to communicate with parents and even teachers too.

A child that is diagnosed with ADHD (Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) may not perform very well in class. If after complaining to the school and you see no result, then visiting the doctor or a psychologist would be the best option.


You might actually say, “is daily motivation really necessary? Yes, it is. Motivation is one of the Skeleton keys to Unlock good grades. it’s very annoying to see your child having this lackadaisical attitude towards their education, without any thought of the future. Motivating them is the best thing you can actually give in as parents, if you really care for your kids.
You can strategically give them these right tips on how to get back on their feet.

• Always give them the reasons to work hard.
A child’s good future is a better reward for parents. This is what they will always be thankful for. It is only left for you to make it or mar it. Make them see the reason to work hard to produce better results, not only in their academics but in other aspects of their lives.

• Make sure to tell them that hard work pays and it’s only the strong that will scale through.

• Always encourage them to do better in their study. If you can be there for them, do it diligently.
• Don’t ever be harsh on them. In this case, use good words and speak in a calm manner. Being harsh will only add more pain to your child, and they might see that all you care about is their performance and not their own happiness.

• Tell them to report to you whatever difficulties, they are facing in their school. This will give them room to open up to you and ask questions, they couldn’t ask their teachers. You need to be available for them too or create time for this.

• Encourage them to enter any educational competition or club. This will help them see other kids like them, doing what they are doing. It creates room for good achievements and good performance.

ALSO, READ How to Strengthen family bonds when you’re staying at home

• Create family learning time. This is not actually easy to do, but it helps in motivating kids. When they see you reading, they will love to read too. It brings the family together and makes kids feel free to ask anything they don’t understand.

• Give them a puzzle to solve. There are a lot of puzzles you can give your kids like kids Sudoku 9*9, kids word search puzzle, kid hangman game, mosaics, pictures crossword game, shape puzzle, dot-to-dot puzzle, and many more.
These are the easiest ways to help kids master a lot of things within and outside their field. And this helps to improve their grades in school.


Reward here is promising them that “ if you come out the first position, or you get a good average point, I will do _______ for you”. Over 60% would do their best if they have been promised by the guardians. Always fulfill your promise and take them to somewhere that can add more value to them.
Besides, you don’t need to wait for them to come out well before rewarding them, you can do it occasionally just to say thank you for their support and obedience towards learning and life.


Being angry that your child failed should not make you grow annoyed excessively. You should know that failure always a road to success. No man succeeds without experiencing any form of failure.
Don’t go overboard, shouting or smacking them for the drop in their grades rather find ways to make them accept responsibility to do well.

A drop in grades is actually not something we should panic about, but something that needs our time to figure out what is actually the ‘cause’. Kids react to everything that happens within and outside their environment. That’s why they are kids.

Mental health professionals believe that when a child is emotionally down or meltdown, there must be something that triggers this reaction. Kids need time, care, love, attention, patience, and more for you to understand them.
You need to do your own part and so the teachers too. Always communicate with them and do the best for them.

ALSO, READ How To Tell If Your Teenager Is Having Sex

Continue Reading

Parenting tips

When do Babies Start to Walk?



when do babies start walking

When do babies start to walk? is a frequently asked question by most new parents around the world. Most times when we come across a baby crawling and cruising we tend to wonder when he/she will take the first step?
A child’s first year is full of events but the most anticipated one might be walking. Hence the question, “When will my baby start to walk.?”

When Should Babies Start to Walk?

Research has shown that babies usually take their first step between the 9th and 16th month. Not all babies start walking in the 9th month. Your first child might have walked when he was 10-months and probably you’re scared that the second is in its 13th month, but still crawling. The truth here is that every child reaches its milestone at a different time. There are several factors that may make a baby walk early or not. Of all, for your baby to start walking he/she must have contracted enough muscles.

The stages of walking

An old adage says, “for you to stand you must sit, for you to walk you must stand, and for you to run you must start walking.” This shows that life itself is in different stages. For a baby to start walking, he must have gone through and mastered other developmental milestones. These include:

Sitting Up
For a baby to start walking, he must learn how to sit properly. Within the periods of the 6th month, your baby should start hacking the puzzle to sit upright, using the muscle in his trunk.
Around this time, the 6th month, you can start teaching your child how to sit. When trying to teach the baby how to sit, ensure you’re close enough to prevent falling.

Pulling to Stand
Pulling to stand varies among toddlers still; some may start this around the 10th month. The leg actually needs lots of energy for a pull to stand to occur because 70% of our body mass is fixed on the hip, so the legs need lots of energy to lift the torso.

This is when the child starts playing around the house with any furniture he/she sees. The time varies too for kids.

Holding Hands
Holding your baby’s hands while walking would help to improve the coordination and balancing of the child. It also adds fun to the walking process. when your child starts holding your hand for him to walk, just know that he would start walking alone soon.

Walking Alone
This is the final stage of completing the puzzle on how to walk. Usually, it starts with trying to move one leg forward and balancing the other leg. Here, the child may be falling too while trying to walk, but it’s all part of the process.

Why Do Babies Walk at Different Times?

One thing you should know is that babies also have emotions too. Some babies usually have this I can do it attitude; to them, the act of walking is a risk they are taking, and have to overcome. You can even perceive it, ranging from the way they interact with you, even as small as they are.
They don’t care if they fall. That’s why you’ll see some children fall as many times as possible when trying to walk. The beautiful part is that they see walking as one of the several fun things they do.
Not all babies have this type of personality, some also have the mentality of wait and see, an unintentional delay caused by fear of trying. These types are usually very cautious. This factor may be the reason why your child is delaying to walk.
Aside from this, there are other things too, which can affect the time it takes for babies to start walking.

• Birth Order:
Research has shown that babies tend to walk faster when they have older siblings around. So they may want to imitate what he/she is doing. It may be very difficult for your first child to start walking at 12months, but if you have other children let’s say from age 3-7, you’ll see your child become smarter. That’s why you see most children become smarter when they have older ones around to play with. That’s why it’s very important (and highly advised) for your child, even in the 8th month, to start school.

• Stature:
The bigger the size, the more difficult for the baby walking. This is because the baby would need to expend more energy to stand upright compared to one with a small stature.
Even when you look at fat people, you’ll notice that they may experience difficulty in walking or running at old age.

• Recurrent Ear Infections: If a child emerges in the 16th month and he’s not walking, then an investigation must be done concerning his health. Perhaps if he has experienced any ear infection. “An ear infection can throw off a baby’s balance and delay walking,” says Dr. Jensen.

A word from Relationshipseeds
Lack of nutrients may also bring delay in the walking puzzle of a child. When a child lacks calcium, it causes an almost permanent impedance to walk-ability. If you notice that after 17 months, you see no visible changes, then you should seek professional help. Meet a pediatrician, a child doctor.

ALSO, READ Major differences between first and second pregnancies


Continue Reading

Parenting tips

How To Tell If Your Teenager Is Having Sex



signs your teenager is having sex

When puberty shows up, teenagers often make so many wrong choices. Teenage age is a very sensitive period where teens want to explore, try new things, and all that. We are living in a world of technology where you can easily get access to anything you want online. Whether it is boyfriend, phone sex, porn clips, illicit materials, and so on.
These days Teens are so smart that they can keep a secret from you without you having a clue. Here, we’ll be looking at the signs that show your child is sexually active.


1. Ask Your Teenager

One may say why would I ask? When you keep on shying away from asking questions like that things may not end well. when you finally decide to ask her that question, choose your words carefully, if you do it a threatening way, you may not get the answers you are seeking, instead, they will tell you lies out of fear.
This approach is a 50:50 because Teens love being secretive, if you’ve never had a deep conversation or you’re not very close with your child you can never get a YES ANSWER.

2. Provocative Dressing

Like I said in the beginning, the teenage age is an exploring age. When you see that your child starts dressing provocatively, it could mean that they’ve already eaten the forbidden fruit. Apart from the girls dressing seductively, the guys may also dress exposing their chests or buying a pink lips balm.
The adolescence stage is when teens become conscious of their appearance and body image. When the girls start having s*x, it usually gives them a heightened sense of maturity, this would make them pay more attention to whatever they wear.

3. More Secretive
When you notice that your child becomes more secretive than ever, it could be a sign that they are started having sex already. You’ll notice they hide their phone whenever they are operating it, use passworded phones; they also use coded language while chatting.
Being secretive is always associated with suspicious movements, such as coming home late, become overprotective about their privacy, because they don’t want you to find out. Even when they want to go out they always find it difficult to tell you where they are going. They will never make a phone call in your presence except it’s a family member that’s calling.

4. Check for Signs of Sexual Activity
Seeing condoms or contraceptives is a sign of sexual activity. It could mean that they are planning to have it or might have done it already. When you notice it, you don’t need to start boil, all you need is a conversation with your child to know what’s up.
When you see these tools in your child’s possession, it means that they are well equipped with the knowledge on how to avoid unwanted pregnancies or prevent sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). So you have to educate them more about unwanted pregnancy, STI, and how having sex can destroy their dreams and career.

5. Behavioral Change
When a child starts doing something evil, you’ll notice that they either become more extroverted or introverted depending on their type of personality. Sometimes, they may become more stubborn. For instance, imagine your child of 18 having an affair with someone who’s 40years of age. The child might start disrespecting you and your partner.
Also, the child may become happier than before. Always try to notice and find out the reason(s) for their new behavior.

6. Keeping Tabs On You
They become too conscious of you. If they want to know where you are going and how many hours you will be spending. Similarly, they will want to know the number of days you are going to spend.
Occasionally, when you come too early, they’d become angry or anxious because they need more time to carry out what they want.

7. Poor Grades In School

The reason why it is not good for teens to engage in sexual activities is that they are not mature enough to handle what relationship or sex is all about. Sex and relationship can take your whole emotions and can drain you mentally.
I remembered when I fell in love during my 11th grade in high school. I can boldly confess that whenever I’m reading my books, I always see the picture of the girl I’m falling for. It took me 6weeks to get over her. When I was in love with her I could barely focus very well on my academics. Also, I’m very sure that I would have failed woefully in high school if I had dated her.
When a teen starts dating at a very young age, it will be very difficult to balance emotions and priorities properly. There are lots of distractions when your child starts premarital sex.

8. Being Involved In Their Life Regularly

The key to being involved in their life is communication. As a parent, there should not be a communication gap. Make your kids open up to you. Some kids might be very difficult or have hardened hearts, but you have to try your best.
Always make them know that you are available for them if any issue arises. With this, if they are facing sort of sexual humiliation they will be able to tell you faster than when you are far away from them.

9. Know Their Friends And Partner
An African adage says “show me your friend and I’ll tell you who you are”. If you do well as a parent to know the character of your child’s friend you’ll be able to know the capability of your child. For example, if the friends of your child are all womanizer or involve in illicit sex, it a sign that your child could be sexually active.
What other signs do you think can point out a sexually active child?

ALSO, READ Exploring the different sexual location

Continue Reading


%d bloggers like this: